# Difference between revisions of "Wiki Formatting Reference"

Welcome! If you want to test out editing pages, please use the "Sandbox" for your tests.

See also Help:Contents, How to make a new article, & Basics of Wiki Formatting

## Tips on editing Cacheopedia articles

Always use a neutral point of view, as Cacheopedia is not a place to promote points of view. It can be used to describe or summarize points of view that exist, which is different.

When practical, cite your sources so others can check and extend your work.

Do not copy the works of others! You can use them as a resource for ideas and information, but no work should be copied wholesale. Try to re-state what they have said, and use multiple sources. This helps create a better article, as you are drawing on the wisdom and experience of many cachers.

## Minor edits

When editing a page, a logged-in user can mark that edit as being "minor". Minor edits generally mean spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearrangement of text.

## Wiki markup

The wiki markup is the syntax system you can use to format a page.

In the left column of the table below, you can see what effects are possible. In the right column, you can see how those effects were achieved. In other words, to make text look like it looks in the left column, type it in the format you see in the right column.

You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference. If you want to try out things without danger of doing any harm, you can do so in the Sandbox. Try opening the Sandbox in a separate window or tab and keeping this page open for reference.

### Sections, paragraphs, lists, and lines

What it looks like What you type

New section

Subsection

Sub-subsection

• Do not skip levels (for example, second-level followed by fourth-level).
==New section==

===Subsection===

====Sub-subsection====


A single newline generally has no effect on the layout. These can be used to separate sentences within a paragraph. Some editors find that this aids editing and improves the function diff (used internally to compare different versions of a page).

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

• When used in a list, a newline does affect the layout (see below).
A single newline
generally has no effect on the layout.
These can be used to separate
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this aids editing
and improves the function ''diff''
(used internally to compare
different versions of a page).

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.


You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

• Close markup between lines, do not start a link or italics or bold on one line and close it on the next.
You can break lines<br/>
without starting a new paragraph.

• Lists are easy to do:
• Start every line with a star (= asterisk).
• More stars means deeper levels.
• A newline in a list

marks the end of a list item.

• An empty line starts a new list.
* Lists are easy to do:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars means deeper levels.
**** A newline in a list
marks the end of a list item.

* An empty line starts a new list.

1. Numbered lists are also good
1. very organized
2. easy to follow
1. easier still
# Numbered lists are also good
## very organized
## easy to follow
### easier still

• You can even do mixed lists
1. and nest them
• like this
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this

Definition list
list of definitions
item
the item's definition
another item
the other item's definition
• One item per line; a newline can appear before the colon, but using a space before the colon improves parsing.
; Definition list : list of definitions
; item : the item's definition
; another item
: the other item's definition

A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

• This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on Talk pages.
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines will not wrap;
ENDIF

• This is useful for:
• pasting preformatted text;
• algorithm descriptions;
• program source code;
• ASCII art;
• chemical structures;
• WARNING: If you make it wide, you force the whole page to be wide and hence less readable, especially for people who use lower resolutions. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.
 IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines will not wrap;
ENDIF

Centered text.
• Please note the American spelling of "center."
<center>Centered text.</center>


A horizontal dividing line: this is above it

and this is below it.

• Mainly useful for separating threads on Talk pages.
• Also used to disambiguate within an article without creating a separate page.
A [[horizontal dividing line]]:
this is above it
----
and this is below it.


What it looks like What you type

There are many types of caches.

• A link to another Cacheopedia article.
• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link above is to the URL

www.cacheopedia.com/wiki/index.php/Types_of_caches, which is the Cacheopedia article with the name "Types of caches".

There are many [[types of caches]].


San Francisco also has all the kinds of caches.

• Same target, different name.
• This is a piped link, using a "pipebar" (|) character to change the visable text of the link.
San Francisco also has
[[types of caches|kinds of caches]].


San Francisco also has public transportation.

Examples include buses, taxis, and streetcars.

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
San Francisco also has
[[public transport]]ation.

Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxi]]s,
and [[streetcar]]s.


See the Help:Contents.

• Don't worry too much about this. This called namespacing, and we don't use it too much here. Yet.  :)
See the [[Help:Contents]].


Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Contents.

Or both: Contents

• The server fills in the part after the pipe character (|) when you save the page. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page (see previous entry).
Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]].

Automatically hide namespace:
[[Help:Contents|]].

Or both:

But not:


Geocaching on Mars is a page that does not exist yet.

• You can create it by clicking on the link (but please do not do so with this particular link).
• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• For more information, see How to start a new article and check out Cacheopedia's Help:naming conventions.
• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
[[Geocaching on Mars]] is a page
that does not exist yet.


• Self links appear as bold text when the article is viewed.
• Do not use this technique to make the article name bold in the first paragraph.
[[Wiki Formatting Reference]] is this page.


Lunaverse
or four to add user name plus date/time:
Lunaverse 10:36, 20 May 2005 (EDT)
Five tildes gives the date/time alone:
10:36, 20 May 2005 (EDT)
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it by adding
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
Five tildes gives the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~

• Help:Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• Note that, while it is possible to link to a section, it is not possible to redirect to a section. For example, "#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]" will redirect to the United States page, but not to any particular section on it. This feature will not be implemented in the future, so such redirects should not be used.
#REDIRECT [[United States]]


'''What links here''' and '''Related changes'''
and


A user's '''Contributions''' page can be linked as:
or
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]


3. Interwiki link without prefix: Hello

Linking to other wikis:
# Interwiki link without prefix: [[Wiktionary:Hello|]]

# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

• Link to books using their ISBN numbers. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors.
• ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-123-45678-X


Date formats:

• Link dates in one of the above formats, so that everyone can set their own display order. If logged in, you can use Special:Preferences to change your own date display setting.
• All of the above dates will appear as "20 July 1969" if you set your date display preference to "15 January 2001", but as "July 20, 1969" if you set it to "January 15, 2001", or as "1969-07-20" if you set it to "2001-01-15".
Date formats:
# [[July 20]], [[1969]]
# [[20 July]] [[1969]]
# [[1969]]-[[07-20]]
# [[1969-07-20]]


• To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, see next section.

Some uploaded sounds are listed at Wikipedia:Sound.

[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]


### Images

What it looks like What you type
A picture: File:Wiki.png

or, with alternative text: jigsaw globe

or, floating to the right side of the page and with a caption:

File:Wiki.png
Wikipedia Encyclopedia

or, floating to the right side of the page without a caption:

• Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.
• See the image use policy and extended image markup/syntax pages for more hints.
• Alternative text, used when the image is not loaded, in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternate text for images for help on choosing it.
• The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png]]

or, with alternative text:
[[Image:Wiki.png|jigsaw globe]]

or, floating to the right side of the page and with a caption:
[[Image:Wiki.png|frame|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]

or, floating to the right side of the page ''without'' a caption:
[[Image:Wiki.png|right|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]

Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: Image:Wiki.png


[[:Image:Wiki.png]]






### Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasize, strongly, very strongly.

• These are double, triple, and quintuple apostrophes (single-quote marks), not double-quote marks.
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''', '''''very strongly'''''.


$\sin x + \ln y$
sinx + lny

$\mathbf{x} = 0$
x = 0

Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis, and should not use <i> or <b>. However, mathematical formulas often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Complex formulas should use $ markup, and simple formulas may use [itex]; or <i> and <b>; or '' and '''. According to WikiProject Mathematics, wiki markup is preferred over HTML markup like <i> and <b>. [itex]\sin x + \ln y$
sin''x'' + ln''y''

$\mathbf{x} = 0$
'''x''' = 0


A typewriter font for monospace text or for computer code: int main()

• For semantic reasons, using <code> where applicable is preferable to using <tt>.
A typewriter font for <tt>monospace text</tt>
or for computer code: <code>int main()</code>


You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.


You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

You can also mark deleted material and inserted material using logical markup rather than visual markup.

• When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
• When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup
rather than visual markup.


Diacritical marks:
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;


Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”

&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;


Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;


Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
<br/>
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
<br/>
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
<br/>
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
<br/>
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]


Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Mathematical characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr;


Spacing in simple math formulas:
Obviously, x² ≥ 0 is true.

• To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, use non-breaking spaces: &nbsp;.

Obviously, ''x''&sup2;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;0 is true.


Complicated formulas:

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$
• See Help:Formula for how to use $. • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character. : [itex]\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (''to'') the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]

• Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
• Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
• Does not escape HTML character references.
• To escape HTML character references such as &rarr; use &amp;rarr;

<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'')
the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]</nowiki>


Commenting page source:
not shown when viewing page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
• Note that most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page.

<!-- comment here -->


At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the TOC to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections). Putting __TOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header). Putting __NOTOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to disappear. See also compact TOC for alphabet and year headings.

And so forth.

This effect is obtained by the following line of code.

<h4> This header has the h4 font, but is NOT in the Table of Contents </h4>

Note that when editing by section, this approach places the text between the tags in the subsequent section, not the previous section. To edit this text, click the edit link next to "Tables", not the one above.

### Tables

There are two ways to build tables:

• in special Wiki-markup (see Help:Table)
• with the usual HTML elements: <table>, <tr>, <td> or <th>.

For the latter, and a discussion on when tables are appropriate, see Wikipedia:How to use tables.

### Variables

Code Effect
{{CURRENTMONTH}} 07
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} July
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} July
{{CURRENTDAY}} 25
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}} Friday
{{CURRENTYEAR}} 2014
{{CURRENTTIME}} 13:43
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 180
{{PAGENAME}} Wiki Formatting Reference
{{NAMESPACE}}
{{localurl:pagename}} /wiki/Pagename
{{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandbox?action=edit
{{SERVER}} http://www.cacheopedia.com
{{ns:1}} Talk
{{ns:2}} User
{{ns:3}} User talk
{{ns:4}} Cacheopedia
{{ns:5}} Cacheopedia talk
{{ns:6}} File
{{ns:7}} File talk
{{ns:8}} MediaWiki
{{ns:9}} MediaWiki talk
{{ns:10}} Template
{{ns:11}} Template talk
{{ns:12}} Help
{{ns:13}} Help talk
{{ns:14}} Category
{{ns:15}} Category talk
{{SITENAME}} Cacheopedia

NUMBEROFARTICLES is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, in other words number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages; CURRENTMONTHNAME is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

### Templates

We don't currently use templates. Until we do, this section is irrelevent.

The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia has support for templates. This means standardized text chunks (such as boilerplate text) can be inserted into articles. For example, typing {{stub}} will appear as "This article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it." when the page is saved. See Wikipedia:Template messages for the complete list. Other commonly used ones are: {{disambig}} for disambiguation pages, {{spoiler}} for spoiler warnings and {{sectstub}} like an article stub but for a section. There are many subject-specific stubs for example: {{Geo-stub}}, {{Hist-stub}}, and {{Linux-stub}}. For a complete list of stubs see Wikipedia:Template messages/Stubs.